By Mukul Sarkar

ISBN-10: 3642349005

ISBN-13: 9783642349003

ISBN-10: 3642349013

ISBN-13: 9783642349010

Biological structures are a resource of idea within the improvement of small self reliant sensor nodes. the 2 significant forms of optical imaginative and prescient structures present in nature are the only aperture human eye and the compound eye of bugs. The latter are one of the such a lot compact and smallest imaginative and prescient sensors. the attention is a compound of person lenses with their very own photoreceptor arrays. The visible procedure of bugs permits them to fly with a constrained intelligence and mind processing strength. A CMOS snapshot sensor replicating the notion of imaginative and prescient in bugs is mentioned and designed during this ebook for business (machine imaginative and prescient) and scientific functions.

The CMOS steel layer is used to create an embedded micro-polarizer in a position to feel polarization info. This polarization info is proven to be beneficial in purposes like genuine time fabric category and self sustaining agent navigation. additional the sensor is provided with in pixel analog and electronic stories which permit edition of the dynamic diversity and in-pixel binarization in actual time. The binary output of the pixel attempts to copy the flickering impact of the insect’s eye to discover smallest attainable movement according to the swap in country. An in-built counter counts the alterations in states for every row to estimate the path of the movement. The chip comprises an array of 128x128 pixels, it occupies a space of five x four mm2 and it's been designed and fabricated in an 180nm CMOS CIS technique from UMC.

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The noise and the PSF for each lens channel is known, thus the original image f(x,y) can be easily obtained. Geometric distortion can be further sub-classified into radial distortion, decentering distortion and thin prism distortion. Radial distortion is caused by imperfect lens shape and manifests itself as radial positional error. Decentering distortion and thin prism distortion are caused by the improper lens and camera assembly, generating both radial and tangential errors in point position.

The center of the sub-image needs to be calibrated with high accuracy for two reasons: a) Each micro-lens has a relatively small field of view with a dimension of around 25x25 pixels in the designed electro-optical system. Thus if the image center calculation varies by approximately five pixels, an error of 20% is introduced in the image reconstruction, which is quite high. A one pixel variation of the center point would reduce the error to 4%. b) Accurate image center position leads to the prediction of accurate position of the optical axis for each eyelet.

The process of obtaining high resolution images from low resolution images involved complex image processing. 11. In the multiple lens system each lens, helps to form a sub image of the object seen with a different angle in the field of view. OBJECT Object LENS ARRAY Lens array Imaging plane IMAGING PLANE Fig. 11 The multiple lenses capture each pyramid of the same object If each lens in the lens array has n sub-pixels along one dimension then the spatial resolution of the system is reduced by a factor of n, producing low resolution subimages at each lens [17].

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