By Leonard Susskind

ISBN-10: 9812560831

ISBN-13: 9789812560834

During the last decade the physics of black holes has been revolutionized by means of advancements that grew out of Jacob Bekenstein’s awareness that black holes have entropy. Steven Hawking raised profound matters in regards to the lack of info in black gap evaporation and the consistency of quantum mechanics in a global with gravity. for 2 many years those questions questioned theoretical physicists and finally resulted in a revolution within the method we expect approximately area, time, subject and knowledge. This revolution has culminated in a awesome precept referred to as "The Holographic Principle", that's now an incredible concentration of recognition in gravitational study, quantum box idea and effortless particle physics. Leonard Susskind, one of many co-inventors of the Holographic precept in addition to one of many founders of String conception, develops and explains those innovations.

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Extra info for An Introduction To Black Holes, Information And The String Theory Revolution - The Holographic Un

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Chapter 4 Entropy of the Free Quantum Field in Rindler Space In the real world, a wide variety of different phenomena take place at different temperature scales. At the lowest temperatures where only massless quanta are produced by thermal fluctuations, one expects to find a very weakly interacting gas of gravitons, photons, and neutrinos. Increase the temperature to the e+ , e− threshold and electron-positron pairs are produced. The free gas is replaced by a plasma. At higher temperatures, pions are produced which eventually dissociate into quarks and gluons, and so it goes, up the scale of energies.

This however would clearly violate the fourth guiding principle stated in the introduction: To a freely falling observer, the horizon of a black hole should in no way appear special. Moreover, the large back reaction on the gravitational field that would result from the divergent expectation value of T µν makes it unlikely that this state can exist altogether. Physical quantities in Rindler space can be divided into those which are sensitive to the cutoff at and those which are not. 9) are found to have smooth limits as → 0, as long as the points (X, Y, u) and (X , Y , u ) are kept away from the horizon.

The distant observer collects information that arrives at any instant from his backward light cone. Evidently such an observer never actually sees events on the The Schwarzschild Black Hole 19 areas Match here of 2-sp B’ A r < t= G M H r 2M =2 8 r=0 + G r=0 - Fig. 10 Penrose diagram for collapsing shell of massless particles 8 r= Black Holes, Information, and the String Theory Revolution Di sta nt ob se rv er 20 Fig. 11 Distant observer to collapsing spherical shell horizon. In this sense the horizon must be regarded as at the end of time.

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