By Kitchin, Christopher R

ISBN-10: 146651115X

ISBN-13: 9781466511156

ISBN-10: 1466511176

ISBN-13: 9781466511170

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1 The Photoelectric Effect The principle of the photoelectric effect is well known; the material absorbs a photon with a wavelength less than the limit for the material and an electron is then emitted from the surface of the material. The energy of that electron is a function of the energy of the photon, whilst the number of electrons depends upon the intensity of the illumination. In practice, the situation is somewhat more complex, particularly when what we are interested in is specifying the properties of a good photoemitter.

It is then simply vented to the atmosphere or may, especially for helium, be collected and stored for future use in a separate operation. The detector, its immediate electronics and sometimes filters or other nearby optical components are usually cooled to the lowest temperature. Other parts of the instrument such as heat shields, windows and more distant optical components may not need to be quite so cold. Hence, especially when helium is the main coolant, cheaper cryogens may be used for these less critical components.

This is simply a second CCD that is not exposed to radiation or half of the CCD is covered by a mask (frame transfer CCD). 1 ms and whilst it is being read out from there, the next exposure can commence on the detecting part of the CCD. Even without a separate storage area, reading the top half of the pixels in a column upwards and the other half downwards will halve read-out times. Column parallel CCDs (CPCCD) have independent outputs for each column of pixels thus allowing read-out times as short as 50 μs.

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Astrophysical techniques by Kitchin, Christopher R

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