By Rebecca Childs.

ISBN-10: 9380168500

ISBN-13: 9789380168500

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If this is Emax, then Emax = m0C2 + Kmax, where moc2 is the rest energy of the electron and Kmax is the end-point (kinetic) energy of the β-ray spectrum. The energy Emax is distributed among the electron, the neutrino, and the recoiling daughter nucleus in a continuous range of different ways. Since the daughter nucleus carries away negligible kinetic energy, the neutrino carries off the difference between Kmax and the actual kinetic energy of the electron for the particular disintegration. Thus the energy remains conserved in the process.

I) What fraction of element remains? (ii) What fraction has disintegrated ? Hint: T = 1/λ λ. [Ans. (i) 1/e, (ii) (e – l)/e] 212 208 14. 83Bi decays to 81T1 by α-emission in 34% of the disintegrations and to 84Po212 by β-emission in 66% of the disintegrations. If the total half-value period is 60 5 minutes, find the decay constants for α and β emissions. Solution: Certain nuclei break up in two different ways, either by α-emission or by β-emission, giving rise to two different product nuclei. The probability of disintegration is the sum of separate probabilities and λ = λα + λβ.

Meitner argued that all β-particles start from the parent nucleus with same kinetic energy Kmax but suffer varying energyloses by collision with the atomic electrons surrounding the nucleus. Hence they come out with continuously varying energies. Ellis and Wooster in 1927, performed an experiment to verify this hypothesis. They placed a β-emitting source (RaE) in a thick-walled calorimeter designed to absorb all of the emitted β-particles and measured the total heat (energy) produced by a known number of disintegrations.

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Atomic Physics by Rebecca Childs.

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