By David Ledbetter
Bach's "Well-Tempered Clavier" (the forty eight preludes and fugues) stands on the middle of baroque keyboard song and has been a version and concept for performers and composers ever because it was once written. This advisor to the ninety six items explains Bach's a variety of reasons in compiling the song, describes the wealthy traditions on which he drew, and gives commentaries for every prelude and fugue. In his textual content, David Ledbetter addresses the focal issues pointed out via Bach in his unique 1722 name web page. Drawing on Bach literature over the last three hundred years, he explores German traditions of composition varieties and Bach's novel growth of them; explains Bach's tools and suggestions in keyboard approach within the normal context of early 18th-century advancements; experiences instructive and theoretical literature on the subject of keyboard temperaments from 1680 to 1750; and discusses Bach's pedagogical rationale whilst composing the "Well-Tempered Clavier". Ledbetter's commentaries on person preludes and fugues may still equip readers with the techniques essential to make their very own evaluation and contain information regarding the assets whilst information of notation, embellishes and fingerings have a concerning functionality.
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Extra resources for Bach's Well-tempered Clavier: The 48 Preludes and Fugues
E. ). In fact chromatic semitones tend to be rather smaller than they need be. It can easily be seen that a place such as bar 45 of the C sharp minor Fugue of Book I, where the counterpoint requires a d"♯ to be held through an e", cannot be literally rendered on this instrument; a more serious conflict is at bar 94, where the same two notes are required as part of two of the subjects of the fugue. By far the most thorough and scientific investigation of this problem has been made by Richard Loucks (1992), who has graded simultaneous semitones into five types, in ascending order of awkwardness: (a) which involve no fretting conflict; (b) where the lower note is sounded first: this means losing a held note (as in bar 45 of the C sharp minor Fugue), and in many cases could slip past without notice; (c) where the upper note is sounded first: this can create a serious problem in losing an important thematic note; (d) rare cases where both notes Spinet 23 of a fretted minor 2nd are required to be struck simultaneously (as in bar 94 of the C sharp minor Fugue): this has to be got around by some expedient such as arpeggiation, or altering the music; (e) when this occurs in the course of important thematic material and there is no possibility of fudging it.
427). Other evidence suggests that Bach’s own attitude to the French harpsichord school was very different from this. C. Griepenkerl (1820), though that in itself may have made it less than attractive to Bach as a virtuoso performer, however much he occupied himself with it as a teacher. 15 In addition, the instrument as he would have known it up to the 1740s had technical limitations which would have ruled out some at least of the 48. Yet Forkel’s words deserve consideration. Taken with other remarks of his about the clavichord, they give a subtler and more believable picture than just crude partisanship.
The six-part Ricercar on the royal theme was not played at Potsdam, but it is likely that the three-part Ricercar as printed is a worked-up version of what Bach improvised on the occasion (C. 324ff). 365–6). At an unspecified date Gottfried Silbermann made his first two pianofortes, on one of which Bach played. He admired the sound greatly but found it weak in the treble, and the action too heavy. Silbermann was incensed by this criticism, but out of regard for Bach worked on these problems for ‘many years’.
Bach's Well-tempered Clavier: The 48 Preludes and Fugues by David Ledbetter
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