By Bharat Bhushan
This publication offers the biophysics of hair. It offers with the constitution of hair, its mechanical houses, the nanomechanical characterization, tensile deformation, tribological characterization, the thickness distribution and binding interactions on hair floor. one other vital subject of the e-book is the overall healthiness of hair, human hair and epidermis, hair care, cleansing and conditioning remedies and harmful techniques. it's the first ebook at the biophysical homes of hair.
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Extra info for Biophysics of Human Hair: Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies
The dimension of the cantilever is typically 230 μm × 40 μm × 3 μm with a flexural spring constant of 1–5 N/m and a torsional spring constant estimated to be 30–150 N/m. The radius of curvature of the tip is about 10 nm. Surface height images shown in this study were processed using the first-order planefit command available in the AFM software, which eliminates tilt in the image. Amplitude and phase angle images were processed using the zero-order flatten command, which only modifies the offset of the image.
9, z is the indention on the hair surface, and E is the Young’s modulus of the sample. The total force acting on the surface and the resulting deformation (indentation) of the sample z can be extracted from the force calibration plot. Additional details are provided in Sect. 2. Consequently, by taking a force calibration plot at discrete sampling intervals over an entire scan area, conditioner thickness, adhesive force, and effective Young’s modulus mapping can be created to display the distribution and variation over the surface.
For TR mode II, instead of keeping a constant setpoint, a constant normal load measured using vertical segments of the photodiode is applied. Under in-plane tip– sample interaction, torsional resonance frequency, amplitude, and phase of the cantilever all change from those when it is far away from the sample surface and could be used for contrasting and imaging of in-plane lateral surface properties. Compared to TM and TR mode I, the AFM tip interacts with the surface more intensively in TR mode II; therefore, more detailed in-plane surface information can be obtained (Chen and Bhushan, 2005).
Biophysics of Human Hair: Structural, Nanomechanical, and Nanotribological Studies by Bharat Bhushan
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