By Michael Lewis; Tom W Young

ISBN-10: 0306472740

ISBN-13: 9780306472749

ISBN-10: 0834218518

ISBN-13: 9780834218512

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These isomers are called a or (3. , not mirror images). The a form has the same configuration at the anomeric carbon (C-l) and at the reference or penultimate carbon atom. The a and (3 forms of glucose are interconvertible via the straight chain form in a phenomenon called mutarotation. Taking all these opportunities for isomerism into account, glucose may be more exactly named a-DC + )-glucopyranose, for example. The a and (3 forms become important when monosaccharides link together to form disaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, because this configuration determines whether the glucosidic link is in the a or (3 configuration.

Some enzymes need to be activated by removing part of the protein molecule or by causing -S-S- bridges to be reduced to -SH. 13Amylase is an example of the latter type of enzyme. An enzyme-catalyzed reaction has three components that must always be considered: the enzyme itself; the substance(s) it acts on, called the sub- Basic chemistry for brewing science 31 strate; and the conditions of the reaction (especially temperature and pH). Enzymes bind with their substrates briefly at the active site to effect their action.

In contrast, non-competitive inhibitors react with a site on the enzyme from which it cannot be removed by adding extra "true" substrate. 6 CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates are an important source of energy for living organisms and a means by which energy may be stored. ",--- ... , , , Net reaction velocity Reaction temperature Optimum pH of reacllon Figure 2-14 Effect of temperature (above) and pH on the reaction rate of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction. Heat accelerates a reaction but also inactivates the enzyme (through protein denaturation).

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Brewing by Michael Lewis; Tom W Young

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