ISBN-10: 0683032690

ISBN-13: 9780683032697

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Other similar studies can be found in the literature: for example, Biometrics, Biometrika, Cancer, Journal of Chronic Disease, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, American Journal of Epidemiology, Journal of the American Medical Association, and New England Journal of Medicine. An easy way to find examples is to use the National Library of Medicine’s Web site and search the file PubMed with appropriate keywords. EXERCISES The four sets of data below are taken from actual research situations.

The survivorship function for every subgroup of each variable was estimated using the Kaplan—Meier method (discussed in Chapter 4) and plotted. 12 gives an example. Survival functions among the subgroups were compared by the logrank test (one of the available tests discussed in Chapter 5). 8 shows that except cholesterol and triglyceride, every one of the 12 variables is significant. The median survival time decreases as age and duration of diabetes increase. Patients with a family history of diabetes, elevated fasting plasma glucose, hypertension, or retinopathy have significantly shorter survival durations than those without these characteristics.

05 Level) Identified by Proportional Hazards Model Relative Risk@ Variable? 52 ? 05. @ Favorable categories are 40 years of age, no hypertension, duration of diabetes 5 years, fasting plasma glucose 130 mg/dL, BMI 35, no proteinuria, and no diuretics use. Unfavorable categories are 60 years of age, hypertensive, duration of diabetes 14 years, fasting plasma glucose 200 mg/dL, BMI 25, having proteinuria, and diuretics use. 7 years). Twelve potential factors (assessed at time of baseline examination) were examined by univariate and multivariate methods for their relationship to retinopathy (RET): age, gender, duration of diabetes (DUR), fasting plasma glucose (GLU), initial treatment (TRT), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body mass index (BMI), plasma cholesterol (TC), plasma triglyceride (TG), and presence of macrovascular disease (LVD) or renal disease (RD).

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