By Princeton Review

ISBN-10: 0307946193

ISBN-13: 9780307946195

THE PRINCETON assessment will get RESULTS. Get the entire prep you want to ace the AP Calculus AB & BC assessments with five full-length perform exams, thorough subject reports, and confirmed thoughts that can assist you rating higher.

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5 full-length perform assessments (3 for AB, 2 for BC) with exact causes
• resolution causes for every perform question
• complete topic studies from content material specialists on all attempt topics
• perform drills on the finish of every chapter
• A cheat sheet of key formulas
• step by step ideas & suggestions for each portion of the examination

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Additional resources for Cracking the AP Calculus AB & BC Exams (2014 Edition)

Example text

The second of these relations shows that an envelope is formed in t > 0 by those characteristics for which f"(£) < 0- The minimum value of t on the envelope occurs for the value of £ for which — F'(£) is maximum. 8). If F"(|) is continuous, the envelope has a cusp at t=tB, as shown in Fig. 1. An extreme case of breaking arises when the initial distribution has a discontinuous step with the value of c(p) behind the discontinuity greater than that ahead. If we have the initial functions 24 WAVES AND FIRST ORDER EQUATIONS Chap.

2); it is not the defining property of characteristics. 3) as characteristics. The basic idea of wave propagation is that some recognizable feature of the disturbance moves with a finite velocity. For hyperbolic equations, the characteristics correspond to this idea. Each characteristic curve in (x, t) space represents a moving wavelet in x space, and the behavior of the solution on a characteristic curve corresponds to the idea that information is carried by that wavelet. The. 4) may be given this type of emphasis by saying that different values of p "propagate" with velocity c(p).

The shock determination can then be described entirely on the fixed F(£) curve by drawing all the chords with the equal area property. The pairs £ = £= |2 at the ends of each chord relate characteristics which meet on the shock. The (x,t) plane is shown in Fig. 10. 45) since the left hand side is the area under the chord and the right hand side is the area under the F curve. 40). 47) determine the three functions s(t), £,(/)> and £2(f). The determination of s(t) is implicit involving the two additional functions | , ( 0 and £2(t) which determine the characteristics meeting the shock at time t.