By Mike Fitzgerald, Gregor McLennan, Jennie Pawson

ISBN-10: 0415027551

ISBN-13: 9780415027557

'There is far right here that's actually debatable, yet not anything that may be ignored.' occasions academic complement

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They are, however, best known as the fathers of the factory system and scientific management. Besides introducing mechanization, extended division of labor, and systematic routing of the work process, they also devised the new disciplines of industrial labor: punch clocks, bells, rules, and fines. 13 Like the hospital and prison reformers these early industrialists rationalized their new discipline as an attempt to reform the morals and manners of their workers. ’14 Regular work and wages, together with the stabilizing influence of a closely supervised village community, had transformed their behavior.

The law defined and maintained the bounds of power and wealth, and when we ask who controlled the criminal law, we see a familiar constellation: monarchy, aristocracy, gentry and, to a lesser extent, the great merchants. In numbers they were no more than 3 per cent of the population. But their discretionary use of the law maintained their rule and moulded social consciousness. An operational definition of the ruling class—asking who controlled a critical institution like the law, and how they manipulated it—is a more useful approach than drawing horizontal lines in Blackstone’s list of forty status levels.

An operational definition of the ruling class—asking who controlled a critical institution like the law, and how they manipulated it—is a more useful approach than drawing horizontal lines in Blackstone’s list of forty status levels. For it is necessary to define in detail what it means to rule. Many historians, confronted with the hegemony of the eighteenth-century ruling class, have described it in terms of absolute control and paternal benevolence. 41 It seems more likely that the relative insecurity of England’s governors, their crucial dependence on the deference of the governed, compelled them to moderate that ferocity.

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Crime and Society (Readings in History & Theory) by Mike Fitzgerald, Gregor McLennan, Jennie Pawson


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