By Chris Jenks

ISBN-10: 0203129849

ISBN-13: 9780203129845

ISBN-10: 0415072786

ISBN-13: 9780415072786

Even if a modern time period, ``culture'' has however remained an ill-defined one. during this publication, Chris Jenks makes an attempt to extra outline this daunting topic, reading this idea within the context of either idealism and materialism, opting for its dating to the idea of social constitution, and assessing its former dominance inside literary experiences. Jenks discusses recommendations of cultural polarization (high vs. low) and cultural replica in addition to tradition in terms of postmodernism.

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3. [8] E. B. Tylor (1871), Primitive Culture: Researches into the Development of Mythology, Philosophy, Religion, Art and Custom, Gloucester, MA: Smith (1958), p. 1. [9] A. L. Kroeber and C. Kluckholn, op. , p. 181. , p. 189. [11] M. Harris, The Rise of Anthropological Theory, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell (1968), p. 328. [12] A. Kroeber, ‘The superorganic’, American Anthropologist Vol. XIX, 1917, p. 192. [13] A. R. Radcliffe-Brown, A Natural Science of Society, Glencoe, IL: Free Press (1957), p.

The supposed regularities, functional interrelations and equilibrium of such structures have led to the sustained application of ‘organismic’ analogies, as with Durkheim and the school of structural- functionalism; or to ‘mechanistic’ analogies, as with Parsons’s cybernetic ‘social system’, being employed in sociological explanations. Social structures, as theoretical devices, plant two problematics at the heart of sociology’s project: (1) as they are both topic and resource for sociological accounts, the work must be teleological – it explains the social in terms of the social; and (2) as they are intangible, but employed causally, all explanations are made with reference to abstractions; it is for this reason that Durkheim himself had to resort to treating judicial codes and suicide rates as external indices of solidarity and integration.

Culture is not behaviour nor the investigation of behaviour in all its concrete completeness. Part of culture consists in norms for or standards of behaviour. Still another part consists of ideologies justifying or rationalizing certain selected ways of behaviour. 10 The ‘pattern theory of culture’, which was also to be seen in the works of Sapir, Benedict, White, Bateson and others, argues for the general and recurrent elements of culture to be understood apart from social structure; thus it recommends the study of patterns, form, structure and organization in culture rather than discrete cultural traits and culture content: ‘.

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Culture (Key Ideas) by Chris Jenks


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