By Emilia Ndiaye

ISBN-10: 2874570257

ISBN-13: 9782874570254

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It has been suggested that, despite the fact that Brown and Levinson’s data came from three diVerent (genetically unrelated) languages, their theories may not apply in situations where notions of face are dissimilar and where perceptions of the face-threatening nature of speech acts may not be the same. Requests in one culture, for example, are not considered so face-threatening as in another. Clearly, much work requires to be done to further reWne the culture-speciWc and context-speciWc manifestation of politeness but, as Jaworski and Coupland, conclude (1999: 297): Despite these criticisms, politeness theory provides an excellent theoretical basis for continuing work on how individuals achieve sociability in face-to-face interaction.

Powerless). The results support the Wndings of the previous study and those of Holmes in as much as the men score higher on modal tags and women on aVective ones, especially facilitatives. Women use more tags overall but at 61 to 55, the diVerence is not particularly striking. What is striking is the diVerence between the powerless and powerful participants. No powerless person of either sex uses either facilitative or softening tags. However, in the modal category, it is powerless speakers who score higher by a proportion of two to one.

According to Kerbrat-Orecchioni, Brown and Levinson’s politeness theory focuses on negative face and their model gives a very negative and pessimistic view of politeness. Interactors are presented as being individuals under permanent threat of all kinds of FTAs and spending their time mounting guard over their territories and their faces. She suggests that the term negative face has been coined to ‘Wt in’ with negative and positive politeness. Negative face has to do with GoVman’s notions of territory and negative politeness with redressive action addressed to the addressee’s negative face.

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De l'indo-européen au latin et au grec : initiation à la grammaire comparée du latin et du grec, avec exercices corrigés, tableaux synthétiques et lexiques by Emilia Ndiaye


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