By Gordan Crawford, Christof Hartmann
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Additional resources for Decentralisation in Africa: A Pathway out of Poverty and Conflict?
With regard to intergovernmental transfers, unconditional, conditional and equalisation grants are channelled to district and urban councils who then distribute them downwards. 20 Starting with the Local Government Development Programme funded by the World Bank and implemented by the Ministry of Local Government, development funds have since been devolved to the local level. Figure 2: Susan Steiner Own local revenue, 1997/98-2002/03 (million Ush) Graduated personal tax 70,000 60,000 Property tax 50,000 40,000 User fees and charges 30,000 20,000 Revenue from departments 10,000 0 Other 1997/98 1998/99 1999/00 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 Source: Author’s illustration based on data from Local Government Finance Commission.
2, pp. 163-178. , 2003, ‘Decentralisation in Africa: Goals, Dimensions, Myths and Challenges’, Public Administration and Development, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 7-16. , 2007, ‘Decentralisation and Poverty: Conceptual Framework and Application to Uganda’, Public Administration and Development, Vol. 27, No. 2, pp. 175-185. S. Model’, Journal of Democracy, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 19-34. , 2008, ‘Decentralization, Democracy and Human Rights: A Human Rights-based Analysis of the Impact of Local Democratic Reforms on Development’, Journal of Human Development (forthcoming) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 1997, Governance for Sustainable Human Development: A UNDP Policy Document, New York: UNDP.
Even where representatives of the poor do sit on councils, there is little evidence that local governments have been more responsive to the poor and marginalized (Crook and Manor, 1998; Crook, 2003; Hickey, 2005). 2. Accountability Closely related with the question of participation and responsiveness is that of the accountability of local governments. Local governments are accountable if they are (held) responsible for their actions. There are two main lines of accountability: civil servants should be accountable to elected representatives; and elected representatives should be accountable to the public.
Decentralisation in Africa: A Pathway out of Poverty and Conflict? by Gordan Crawford, Christof Hartmann
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